1811 - 1820



February 5: Prince of Wales (future George IV) made Regent after George III deemed insane

November: Luddite uprisings (machine breaking) in the Midlands against weaving frames started went on until 1815 groups of workmen rebelled against the increased mechanisation of textile production by destroying the new machinery government fears revolutionary conspiracy damaging property or taking Luddite oaths become capital offences



Prime Minister, Spencer Perceval, assassinated shot as he entered the House of Commons by a bankrupt Liverpool broker, John Bellingham, who was subsequently hanged

June 18: Start of American "War of 1812" against England and Canada

October-December: Napoleon retreats from Moscow with catastrophic losses

Comet steamship launched in Scotland



'Policy for the Improvement of the Highlands' approved by British Parliament

Ireland: First recorded "12th of July" sectarian riots in Belfast

Rose's Act (1812) established a printed format for baptism & burial registers



"Year of the Burning" in Sutherland and Ross

Act of Burial in Woollen repealed

First Pigot's Commercial Directory printed

January 1: Invasion of France by Allies

April 6: Napoleon abdicates and is exiled to Elba

Sugar prices reach record heights



June 18: The Napoleonic Wars came to an end at the Battle of Waterloo on June 18, 1815. Fought near present-day Brussels, Belgium, the battle was one of the most important in European history. A combined army which included the major powers—Austria, Great Britain, and Prussia—routed the French, forcing Napoleon to abdicate. Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, who led the allied force, was restrained after his great triumph. Surveying the field of dead and dying men, he said: "Nothing except a battle lost can be half so melancholy as a battle won."

Corn Bill passed with enormous benefit to landlords



Economic depression

Income tax abolished

Climate: the 'year without a summer' followed a volcanic eruption in Indonesia



Johnstone's London Directory printed



First steamship (Savannah) to cross Atlantic (26 days)



Aug 16: Peterloo Massacre at Manchester a large, orderly group of 60,000 meets at St. Peter's Fields, Manchester demand Parliamentary Reform mounted troops charge on the meeting, killing and maiming many people

December: Six Acts passed against radical political Unions prohibits assemblies similar to St. Peter's Fields and imposes press censorship



January 29: Accession of George IV, previously Prince Regent

Cato Street Conspiracy

Aug 17: Trial of Queen Caroline to prove her infidelities so George IV can divorce her George tries to secure a Bill of Pains and Penalties against her Caroline is virtually acquitted because bill passed by such a small majority of Lords 

Arithmometer, forerunner of the calculator.