1791 - 1800



Sugar prices rise steeply

John Bell, printer, abandons the "long s" (the "s" that looks like an "f")

Establishment of the Ordnance Survey of Great Britain

December 4: First publication of The Observer oldest Sunday newspaper


Repression in Britain (restrictions on freedom of the press) Fox gets Libel Act through Parliament, requiring a jury and not a judge to determine libel

Boyle's Street Directory published

October 1: Introduction of Money Orders in Britain

Coal-gas lighting invented by William Murdock, an Ayrshire Scot

December 1: King's Proclamation drawing out the British militia


February 11: England declares war on France (1793-1802)

Execution of Louis XVI

April 15: 5 notes first issued by the Bank of England


Abolition of Parish Register duties

Battle of Glorious First of June

October 6: The prosecutor for Britain, Lord Justice Eyre, charges reformers with High Treason he argued that, since reform of parliament would lead to revolution and revolution to executing the King, the desire for reform endangered the King's life and was therefore treasonous


The Famine Year

Foundation of the Orange Order

Speenhamland Act proclaims that the Parish is responsible for bringing up the labourer's wage to subsistence level towards the end of the eighteenth century, the number of poor and unemployed increased dramatically price increases during the Napoleonic Wars (1793-1815) far outstripped wage rises many small farmers were bankrupted by the move towards enclosures and became landless labourers their wages were often pitifully low

Pitt and Grenville introduce "The Gagging Acts" or "Two Bills" (the Seditious Meetings and Treasonable Practices Bills) outlawed the mass meeting and the political lecture

Consumption of lime juice made compulsory in Royal Navy


May 14: Dr Edward Jenner gave first vaccination for smallpox in England

Holden's Triennial Directory published

Pitt's "Reign of Terror": More treason trials leading radicals emigrate


England in Crisis, Bank of England suspends cash payments

February 26: First 1 note issued by Bank of England

April-June: Mutinies in the British Navy at Spithead and Nore

Tax on newspapers (including cheap, topical journals) increased to repress radical publications


February-October: The Irish Rebellion; 100,000 peasants revolt; approximately 25,000 die Irish Parliament abolished

First planned human experiment with vaccination, to test theories of Edward Jenner


January 9: Pitt brings in 10% income tax

July 12: Repressive legislation in Britain against political associations and combinations

Foundation of Royal Military College Sandhurst by the Duke of York

Foundation of the Royal Institution of Great Britain

Post Office New Annual Directory  


July 2: Parliamentary union of Great Britain and Ireland

Electric light first produced by Sir Humphrey Davy

Use of high pressure steam pioneered by Richard Trevithick

Earliest Bible Christian registers

Royal College of Surgeons founded