1651 - 1660



The second English Civil War

Scottish prisoners transported to the English settlements in America


Commonwealth registers start

Commonwealth changed into Cromwell's Protectorate

Under the Act of Settlement Cromwell's opponents stripped of land (in Ireland?)


Provincial probate courts abolished probates granted only in London


Post Office established by Act of Parliament [others say 1660]

A few Jews permitted to settle in England


September 3: Death of Oliver Cromwell


Richard Cromwell (son of Oliver) Lord Protector


February 6: date of first known cheque to be drawn

  Londoners get the penny post.


January 1: Samuel Pepys starts his diary

May 29: Restoration of British monarchy 'Oak Apple Day' theatres reopened

Commonwealth registers ended, Parish Registers resumed

Provincial Probate Courts re-established

October: Ten Regicides are executed at Charing Cross or Tyburn: Thomas Harrison, John Jones, Adrian Scrope, John Carew, Thomas Scot and Gregory Clement, who had signed the death warrant; the preacher Hugh Peters; Francis Hacker and Daniel Axter, who commanded the soldiers at the trial and the execution of the king; and John Cook the solicitor who directed the prosecution 

Clarendon code restricts Puritans' religious freedom

December 8: First actress plays in London (Margaret Hughes as Desdemona)

Composition of light discovered by Newton

Honourable East India Company founded by British

First British in Japan

Scotland adopts Gregorian calendar